Chapter 1: Matter and Measurements Review

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AP Chemistry
Science of chemistry dates form about 1800, chemistry is an experimental science.
  1. Measured Quantities
    1. Length
    2. Volume
    3. Mass
    4. Temperature
      Kelvin: K= oC + 273.15
      Celsius: oC = K - 273.15
  2. Significant Figures
    1. significant digits: based upon the meaningful digits from the laboratory instrument, know the rules on page 13 of the textbook.
    2. mathematics: multiplication and division
                           addition and subtraction.
  3. Conversion Factors
    Based on the "bridge" between known and unknown
    1. one step conversions
    2. multiple step conversions

  4. Types of Substances
    1. elements: cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances.
      Know symbols, location on periodic table.
    2. compounds: contain two or more elements with fixed mass percents.
      sodium chloride NaCl      39.345 Na, 60.66% Cl

  5. Properties of Substances
    Used to identify a substance by comparing to the properties of known substances.
    1. chemical properties
    2. physical properties
      1. density
      2. solubility
      3. specific heat: q = m (  delta T) (Cp)
      4. color
  6. Separation of Mixtures
    1. distillation
    2. chromatography

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