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The Common Solution

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Water

H2O 104.5o bent configuration. Thus water is a polar compound.
water diagram

The following classes of substances, in general, are miscible:

Hints; Ionic salts dissolve in water. Water is polar. Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen are nonpolar.

Strong, Weak and Non Electrolytes

Strong
total dissociation, high conductivity.
examples: HCl, NaCl, Sr(NO3)2, strong bases, such as NaOH and KOH.
Weak
partial dissociation, low to moderate conductivity.
examples: weak organic acids, acetic acid, and weak bases, such as NH3.
Non
no dissociation, close to zero conductivity.
examples: sugar, AgCl, Fe2O3.

Describing Reactions in Solution

  1. Molecular: This gives the overall reaction.

    2AgNO3 (aq) + Na2S (aq) --> Ag2S (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq)
  2. Complete Ionic: This gives the equation including all ions in solution.

    2Ag+ (aq) + 2NO3- (aq) + 2Na+ (aq) + S2- (aq) --> Ag2S (s) + 2Na+ (aq) + 2NO3- (aq)
  3. Net Ionic: This gives information on those species that undergo a chemical change. Ions that appear in the same form on both sides of the complete ionic equation are called spectator ions, and are not included in the net ionic equation.

    2Ag+ (aq) + S2- (aq) --> Ag2S (s)


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