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Nuclear Chemistry

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Nuclear Equations
  1. Mass number is conserved in a nuclear change.
  2. Electric charge is conserved in a nuclear change.
Particle types
Name Symbol Standard Equation Format Mass # Charge #
Alpha alpha 42He 4 +2
Beta-minus beta.gif- 0-1e 0 -1
Beta-plus beta.gif+ 0+1e 0 +1
Neutron n 10n 1 0

Half-Life: the length of time required for one-half of the atoms of a radioactive sample to decay.
(Number of atoms left) = ((1/2)n) * (original # of atoms)
n = the number of half lives elapsed.

Fission: break up of a large nucleus into two smaller nuclei creating a higher binding energy.

Fusion: two or more smaller nuclei combining to form a larger nucleus with a higher binding energy.

Synthetic Elements: made by bombarding plutonium with neutrons or other large elements with smaller elements.

Example of nuclear reaction:
25499Es + 42He --> 256101Md + 2 10n

Types of nuclear reactions:
Alpha Decay
23892U --> 42He + 23490Th

Decay: Beta Emission (Beta-minus)
22888Ra --> 0-1e + 22889Ac

beta -minus emission

Decay: Positron Emission
9344Ru --> 01e + 9343Tc

positron emission

K-Capture (capture beta-minus)
8337Rb + 0-1e --> 8336Kr + X-ray

k-capture + X-ray

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